Lutherans of the Republic of Poland

The documented history of Lutheranism in Grudziądz dates back to the year 1524. Then, at the invitation of the starosta Jan Sokołowski, passing through the city with his Elisha on the way from Königsburg to Prešov (Bratislava) the first evangelical bishop of the Diocese of Pomezasian (with the cathedral in Kwidzyn, residing in the castle of Prabutach) Erhard von Queiss gave the first serif in a new spirit in the church. From now on, the Reformation was conceived to make a slow but steady progress, which was influenced by the changes occurring shortly after the memorable occurrence of the Augustinian monk Martin Luther against the pardon (which took place in the Saxon Wittenberg on 31 October 1517). Also in other cities of the Royal Prussia, with Gdansk, Toruniem and Elbląg at the forefront, not to mention the secularisation of the religious state and the official introduction of the principles of the Reformation in the neighbouring princely Prussian states in 1525. Around the year 1530, Grudziądz City Council was supposed to allow some priest Andrzej to celebrate the services and to deliver the sermons kept in the Lutheran spirit and allowed him to marry. " However, it was only a transitional episode, since three years later it was removed from the city of the butcher's fellow for the promotion of evangelical views and punished by the burgher assisting him.
In 1540, the The Protestant school was organised, but the city Council advocated the opening of the Reformation only in the years 1552-1553. The Serania was then given a periodic in Grudziądz by Dr. Joachim Mörlin, probably in the hospital Church of St. Nicholas. Spirit. Eventually, the first evangelical-Augsburg pastor was in 1563. Eberhard Sperber (Eberhardus Nisus, 1529-1608), who, with the consent of the Catholic Pastor Maciej of Strzep-Cza (called Ścierpcz), celebrated the service in the Church of St. George. Nicholas. The main sect advocate of the new ecclesial order was a longtime mayor (between 1562-1616 and 2007), Krzysztof Naps, educated at the Royal University and a notary (municipal secretary) Michał Kahl.
The Great Plague, which decimated the people of Grudziądz in 1564, and after which the evangelical settlers of the Protestant faith arrived in greater numbers, was not without significance for the eventual roving of the new religious currents. In 1569, the Tolerant King Zygmunt August gave the city the desired privilege of freedom of religion and evangelicals beside the Fary (where they co-host with Catholics) and the Church of St. George. The spirit was also occupied by the chapel behind the walls of St. George.
Among the inhabitants of Grudziądz was dominated by German element, but they were Poles, for which in 1568. A separate deacon was appointed. The first was for two years Jan SŁUPCA. The second is Paweł Blumgott (1570-1571), a later preacher in Nowem and at St. George's Chapel. Anna in Gdansk. His successor in 1572 He briefly became Maciej of Strzepcza (died in the same year), who officially accepted the Protestant confluence and handed over to the Luterans the stuffing with the entire parish estate. Successive Polish clergy are Melchior Dąbrowski, from the area of Pomezanii (1572-1588, formerly the pastor of Domnów in Princely Prussian), Marcin Sieberdt (Sribrarius) of Toruń (1588-1603), Jan Guht (Gubi, Guth, 1603-1605), Joachim Senftenberg of Nidzica (1605-1609), Marcin Niederich from Pasymia (1609-1619, later in Malbork), finally Maciej Lobdau (Logdau, Lobdovius, 1619-1624). During this period, the increasing Catholic contract under the decree of King Sigmund III Vasa forced the evangelists in the year 1598 to donate the Fary and the Church of St. Peter. Spirit. Because the chapel of St. The church, mainly used as graveyard, was too small, the devotion was transferred to the Castle chapel, which was made available by the Starostas of Jan Zborowski. After his death in 1603, he was was celebrated in Lwim Spichrzu.
In the year 1618 the chapel of St. George was destroyed by the flood and in return the unused church of St. Peter was again obtained. The Spirit (according to some researchers it happened in the year 1608). Ultimately, however, at the latest in the year 1624, the place of celebration of services for more than a century and a half was the hall in the town hall, located on the ground floor, under the seat of municipal authorities. The use of bells was forbidden by Bishop Chełmiński, although in 1632. The building was built by Francis Holtzinger. In 1635, the The right of the Evangelists Grudziądz to possess this prayer house personally confirmed when visiting the city King Władysław IV. Still in 1619, the A small building of the Protestant city school was erected next to the town hall.
In 1621, the The position of the deacon was liquidated, creating in exchange the equivalent of the second pastor, but the Polish service was probably survived until the end of the 18TH century, even during the period of the church. From a long series of second pastors, Jan Borawski (Barawski, Zbarawskiego, 1618-1624), a Latin poet, originating in Lithuania, had previously been the court preacher of Anna Wazówny at her headquarters in Brodnica and Seweryna Stobbego, formerly Polish and German preacher in Gniewie, deceased in 1629. The preacher, Seweryn Rosentreter, was a part of the famous ecumenical Colloquium Charitativum in Toruń in 1645, in the years 1632-1655. Many of Grudziądz clergyman came from Mazury. The newcomer from Lithuania was the Grudziądzki pastor in the heavy years of the Swedish Flood (1656-1659), Fr. Otto Matthesius (1618-1669). Born in Nieświewice, the ward of the Prince Radziwiłł family, he received a thorough education in the Jesuit schools of Vilnius, then at the Royal Albertina and, as it betrays the Unquiet epoch – he acted in Vilnius (he was also a home teacher Sons of Nowogródek Voivode Chreptowicz), in Riga, Copenhagen and in Königsberg (M. Others. In the Polish parish on the Kamienna Grobli – Steindamm). He earned a master's degree from the University of Rostock, and became a pastor in Vilnius and escaped from there in 1655, and lost all the wealth as a result of the invasion of Russian troops. In Grudziądz he was hit for an equally devastating period, culminated in the devastation of the city during the siege of the Swedish crew by the Polish troops and moved to the position of Archideacon in Kwidzyn. It is also necessary to mention at least three rectors of Grudziądz School – Jan Monet of Olecka (from 1692-1696 to 2004), later active at St. Peter's Church. The spirit in Gdańsk, the author of the popular Handbook of Polish grammar (Enchiridion Polonicum, published in 1720, had 7 releases until the year 1798) and Polish kancjonal Gdańsk (1723), Solomon Hermson, author of unpublished Polish kancjonal, and Jakub Schmidt, who issued a revised version of the Gdańsk Bible (Halle 1726, 1745, Brzeg 1768). Recall, moreover, that the position of the evangelical pastor of Grudziądz was held by M. Others. In the years 1588-1599 the controversial Benedict Morgenstern from Słupsk, acting in both parts of Prussia, violently opposed to the representatives of other theological currents, especially against the Czech brethren, a friend of the starosta Jan Zborowski and School keeper. After that he was officially a religious refugee from Upper Hungary (today's Slovakia) and according to the tradition of the old noble family of the Spanish (probably rather French) Jerzy Bernard Gilbert de Spaignard (between 1599-1600) and his son Jerzy Gilbert ( From 1610 to 1620, then at the Corpus Christi in Gdansk), Jan Herbinius (1677-1679), scholar, educator and Philanthrop, Jan Jakub Hoynovius – Translator of German religious song into Polish (Wiatach 1680 – 1694, previously rector of the school in Działdowie, then at St. The spirit in Gdańsk), John Chrystian Oloff (from 1732-1743 to 2004, previously in Słucko; son and brother of pastor, founder of the whole dynasty of priests active in Pomerania) and many, many others, whose silhouettes would be worthy of reminders of today's society of the city. In addition, Jan Stobbe (Stobaeus, also called Stobeusz, 1580-1646), a prominent musician and composer, was born in Gruenská evangelical environment, and was associated with Königsdom, where he was the cathedral exchange and the chaper of the court elector Jerzy Wilhelm. You will also mention a poet-amateur Barbara Elżbieta Bohr from the House of Sarse, a wife of the Councilors Frederick Bohr, known for arranging German religious songs and translating a dozen songs from German to Polish, which she collected for home use and released In 1719, in the Polish-Polish annexe of Jan Zachariah Stolli in Gdańsk. Relations with the nobility supported by Catholics, dominant in the vicinity of the city, and who next to the restored temples during the 17TH-18TH centuries. They erected new monastic Jesuits together with the college and the Reformats, and at St. Peter's Church. The spirit had deposited the Benedictines, they were not easy. Even the celebration of the service in the town Hall did not take place without difficulty. In 1647, the Roman Catholic priest Fr. Jan Potrykowski (a.k.a. Pietrykowski) was able to cover the cost of the repair of the fary on the city council. In addition, he demanded the celebration of Catholic holidays, high fees for evangelical Baptistas and Funers, and finally obtained the right to control sermons. Evangelicals in clergy matters were to be governed by the Bishop of Chełmiński. The provisions of the "agreement" cancelled after the year King John Casimir thanks to the efforts of the city, backed by an appropriate amount of money (which, moreover, in these times was a universally accepted custom). In return, the council founded the gate in the cemetery at St. George's Church. Nicholas, and craftsmen-a candlestick in this church. Disputes about parish property, hospital, etc. Continued. In contrast, during the Swedish occupation of 1656-1659, the church was abandoned by the pastor and the Catholic clergy was forced to leave Grudziądz.
When the Poles were gaining the city in 1659, the The town hall burned down and there was no place to celebrate the church. However, in the following year the reconstruction of the prayer room was completed, which received a number of rich gifts (the renovation of the proper town hall lasted much longer). For reconstruction he allowed m.in. A generous record in the testament of Mayor Thomas Rintze-Rybickie, mayor of Matthias Pauli and others. The gifts of the whole congregation were worthy of furnishing: The Apothecary Jan Hartmann founded the ornate confessional, the preacher Krzysztof Schulz, his wife, Regina Albert, a large picture showing the final Judgment, Catherine Lüdtke Hanging candle Holder, Anna Teichmann, Elżbieta Nbutt and Hans and Anna Biesenbruchowie donated liturgical vessels, etc. There was no shortage of embroidered gold and silver altar caps. Donations were made by the city councils of Toruń and Gdańsk. Among the donors there are also Polish names (which, moreover, does not prejudge the nationality): the Piernikarski master Henryk Cujawa founded a great crucifix, to which the accompanying figure of Maria founded the woman, and the sculpture of St. John-The Jouraders; Andrzej Nałęcz donated a silver candlestick. The altar was the work of the by Andrzej Rosiński. Unfortunately, I guess nothing has survived to our time. Further gifts took place during the 18TH century, in the form of church equipment and liturgical vessels, various sums of money and construction parcels. There was a parish library to which many theological works were offered by Mayor Krzysztof Bythner (a.k.a. Biitttner). From the 18th century. The parish house at UL. The Lord, then on the long 1.
The difficulties of the Catholic party were not set, despite the renewal by King John Casimir in 1660. Privilege of freedom of religion. Including. Twice (1661, 1682) accused clerics of blasphemy, in the latter case the allegation was also to preach in Polish, considering them as a dangerous instrument of impact on broader social strata (at the same time Next to the Polish, the German seration was proclaimed for Catholics in the Church of the Pharas). Every time he was appeoked to the king who dismissed the judgments. In 1720, the Catholic pastor forced the evangelists to cast a part of the tubes from the organs that allegedly were supposed to interfere with the devotion in the paint. Such an unfriendly relationship between the denominations of the Royal Prussia was not an exception, as is evidenced by such vivid cases as the banishment of Protestant Bishop Chełmno (1580), the chicane-enforced community of Brodnica after the death of the local Starościny Anna Wazówny in 1625 R. and harassment of the Evangelical people of the new town of Lubawski by the Pleban of Jan Ewertowski (1689-1740). To be honest, also the other party, ruled by the Protestants of Gdańsk or Toruń, has also been far from being tolerant of Catholics and other religious minorities. Only after 1767 And under pressure from neighbouring countries, Polish Protestants have obtained the right to religious freedom in their country, which, moreover, has become one of the reasons for the binding of the Barian confederation and the ravaged country of several years of armed struggle.
 
(Author: Jerzy Domasłowski)

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